Information for authors

Manuscript submission process

The content of this webpage is available for download as a PDF

Online Submission

Spandidos Publications journals utilize an online submission and tracking system designed to provide a faster, more efficient service to authors.

Submission guidelines

  • The principal aim of Spandidos Publications is to promptly publish original works of high quality.
  • Manuscripts will be accepted on the understanding that they report original work and review articles concerning fields of recognisable progress and are not under consideration for publication by another journal.
  • Manuscripts should be written in clear, concise English and should contain all essential data in order to make the presentation clear and the results of the study replicable.
  • All material submitted will be subject to review by appropriate referees selected by the Editorial Office.
  • The Editors reserve the right to improve manuscripts on grammar and style.
  • The corresponding author is responsible on behalf of all authors for the submission.

Prior to submitting your manuscript, please ensure that it has been prepared according to the guidelines below, with special emphasis on the style of presentation of the Author affiliations and the reference list.

1. Submission method

Manuscript must be submitted by one method only.

1.1 Online Submission:

Submissions can be uploaded using the online submission system. Click here to access the system, log in or create an account and follow the onscreen directions.

2. Cover letter

Summarize briefly the main importance of the submitted work.

3. Format of articles and reviews

3.1 General style

  • Title of the study must be included
  • Sub-titles and general headlines should be presented in lower case letters (not capitals)
  • Indicate affiliations of the authors by number (not symbols)
  • Indicate equal contribution by asterisk
  • Abstract should be continuous (without reference numbers, or headlines)

3.2 Manuscripts

Manuscripts reporting experimental results must be divided into the following sections:

  • First page should include the title of the presented work, full names and postal addresses of all authors, name and the e-mail address of the author to whom correspondence is to be sent, key words and an abbreviated running title (maximum 100 characters), including the first author's name
  • Abstract of approximately 150-300 words.
  • Introduction
  • Materials and methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Pages should be numbered consecutively. Footnotes should not be used

For Review articles:

  • May include different sections and headlines according to the subject matter and the Author's opinion
  • Abstract is mandatory.
  • Main headlines of the review should be summarized as a contents section immediately following the Abstract.

For the Materials and methods section:

  • The Materials and methods section should include sufficient technical information to allow the experiments to be repeated. This implies that a full description of all the experiments described in Results and presented in the Figures/Tables is expected in this section. For each experiment, all steps (e.g., DNA and protein extraction, quantification, cloning, PCR and microscopy) need to be mentioned, along with instruments the analyses were performed on, reagents and methods (e.g., BCA method for protein quantification, ΔΔCq method for qPCR) and relevant citations.
  • For steps performed with commercialized kits, provide the full name of the kit, along with the full name and location (city, state if USA/Canada, and country) of the supplier, and state whether the protocol of the manufacturer was followed as such. Additionally, clarify whether any potential modifications were made to this protocol. For PCR reactions, provide name of the used kit, the 5’-3’ sequence of the primers, final concentration of all reagents in the reaction, and cycling conditions. Carefully revise your text to ensure that the type of PCR, quantitative or semi-quantitative, is clearly explained. If the PCR is performed using a cDNA synthesized from RNA samples, make sure that all steps are described, and refer to the method as ‘RT-PCR’ or, if quantitative, as RT-qPCR. Manufacturers/suppliers/software developers need to be provided for all used reagents (including chemicals), instruments (e.g. thermal cyclers, microscopes) and software, ideally accompanied by the corresponding kit number/model/version. For antibodies, additional information required includes the type (monoclonal/polyclonal), species in which they were raised and targeted species (e.g., mouse anti-human) and dilution. For centrifugation steps, provide centrifugal force units in x g rather than revolutions per minute (rpm).
  • All the above equally applies to bioinformatic analyses: the software used along with the relevant citation is needed, unless the software is not published, in which case a website link can be provided. For microarray/RNA sequences, data downloaded from GEO or other databases, this needs to be clarified in the text, along with the corresponding accession number of the dataset. The use of software should be described with regards to the parameters (default, study-specific) and the applied thresholds; please explicitly name the parameters, e.g. ‘association value’ or ‘false-positive rate’. For all software using data from public databases for a search, provide the database (along with date of access for databases constantly updated), and species (e.g., human). If Figures/Tables contain data from a public database (e.g., Gene Ontology/KEGG), explicitly cite the source in the legend/title/footnote. For publicly available sequences, provide the accession number.
  • The source of material used for all experiments should be clearly identified: tissues (where collected from)/bacterial strains or cells (name and supplier). For studies on humans, a minimum of information is required: number of subjects, age range, gender ratio, health status, matching between controls and disease patients with regards to the above parameters. Please note that ‘normal’ should be avoided for controls; rather, the precise health status needs to be described, e.g., ‘healthy’, or ‘individuals with no recorded tumor complication’. For manuscripts presenting studies on humans and animals see 3.9 below.
  • Please note that Figure legends are not expected to contain information already described in Materials and methods, except for image-specific specifications, for example, magnification for microscopy, or type of microscope, e.g., fluorescence microscope. Legends should provide information concerning what is shown in the figure(s)/figure parts. The x- and y-axes of the graphs must be clearly explained in the legends, and when p-values are provided, the comparison these p-values refer to must be clearly stated.

3.3 Figures

3.3.1 File format

  • Acceptable
    • TIFF
    • JPEG (saved at the highest quality)
    • EPS files or full page (one image filling a whole standard-sized page) PSD files for vector figures (charts/graphs) only
  • Unacceptable
    • Images imported or copy pasted into Word or PowerPoint
    • BMP, GIF, PCT, PNG or low quality JPEG files

3.3.2 Color mode

  • Acceptable
    • Color figures: CMYK mode
    • Black and white figures: grayscale mode
    • Color or grayscale figures submitted in RGB mode
  • Unacceptable
    • sRGB or webRGB color modes
  • PLEASE NOTE
    • Color figures are welcome but must be submitted only if reproduction in color is intended (a charge will apply).
    • There is a charge of Euro 390 per published color page.
    • Changing color figures to black and white following evaluation is not possible

3.3.3 Image size

    • Image size is measured in centimeters or inches
    • Saved at the size (width) at which they will be printed
      • 8.00 cm (3.15 in) wide for a single column
      • 17.00 cm (6.70 in) for a double column
      • Maximum height 20.00 cm (7.87 in)

      • Empty white space surrounding a figure should NOT be included when calculating image size. Images should therefore be cropped (cut) as close to the outside edges of the figure as possible.

      • If a figure is too wide or contains too much information to be fit within 17 cm while keeping details clearly visible, figures must be divided into several clearly labeled separate parts

3.3.4 Image resolution

      • Images must be clear, high contrast and of the size they are to appear in the journal
      • Saved at a resolution of AT LEAST 300 dpi/inch, at the size at which they will be printed or larger (>8 or 17 cm wide) with NO white space around the edges of the figure.
      • Insufficient image size and/or resolution (dpi) results in poor quality (blurred) printed figures.
      • Low-resolution figures (

3.3.5 Exporting/capturing/saving figures

Figures may be obtained by scanning, digital photography, or exporting using scientific software or a program such as PowerPoint.

  • Scanning
    • Must be scanned using a high quality scanner at a resolution of 300 dpi/inch prior to scanning
    • Print on high quality photographic paper.
  • Digital photographs
    • Captured using 'fine' or 'extra fine' settings to ensure that they are of sufficient size/resolution
    • Exporting
      • When exporting using scientific software, select settings to ensure the highest possible final size and resolution.
      • When exporting from PowerPoint, choosing 'Save as TIFF' from the Save as dialogue box will NOT result in an image of sufficiently high resolution (figures will instead be saved at 92 dpi/inch). It is necessary to FIRST save the image as a PDF (from the Print dialogue box), THEN to open the PDF with image editing software. This allows for the dpi to be specified when the PDF is first opened. The file may be then saved as a TIFF using the image editing software
      • Also possible to save Word or Excel files as PDFs to export them in a similar fashion
      • If figures are NOT initially scanned, photographed or exported at a sufficiently high size/resolution, artificially increasing the resolution of a low-quality figure (i.e. , keeping the figure size the same while raising the dpi) using image editing software will NOT improve its quality

3.3.6 File size

  • Figures should have a file size of less than 10 MB.
  • To reduce the file size of images:
    • If images are the exact width and height required for publication (not smaller), make sure the figures are saved at no more than 300 dpi/inch.
    • Layers in the image must be flattened.
    • Saving black and white figures as grayscale will considerably reduce file size.
    • Figures saved as high quality JPEGs will have a slightly smaller file size than TIFFs.
    • If saved according to our guidelines, it is rare for a file to exceed 10 MB. However, some internet service providers limit the size at which files may be sent to as little as 2 or 5 MB. In such cases, files may be compressed before sending using a compression or stuffing utility, such as WinZip or StuffIt, or each figure may be sent attached to a separate e-mail.

3.3.7 Figure labels

  • Font size
    • Labels must be in correct proportion to the image, sharp, and clearly legible.
    • Font size must be 8-10 point when figures are saved at the correct size, (8 or 17 cm at 300 dpi/inch).
    • If the image is saved at a size larger than that needed for printing, the font size of labels must also be larger to maintain the correct proportions.
    • If labels cannot fit on an 8-cm-wide page unless the font size is smaller than 8 points, the figure must be prepared as a double column figure (14-17 cm wide). If labels cannot fit on the 17-cm-wide page unless the font size is smaller than 8 points, the figure must be split into several parts.
  • Font style and appearance
    • Labels must be saved using standard fonts, and should be evenly spaced, clear and free of distortion: Times and/or Helvetica font.
    • Labels should be sharp and clearly legible (including exponential numbers around figure axes) NOT blurry, fuzzy, faded or broken. Faint labels (e.g., in light gray color) should NOT be used.
    • There must be strong contrast between labels and their background (e.g., labels placed over shaded bar graphs should be in a color that stands out against the shading, NOT blend in with it). Whenever possible, labels should be placed in black font on a white background.
    • Letters of labels must NOT be overlapping, condensed, expanded, have unnecessary gaps between them or be otherwise irregularly spaced, and must NOT be stretched (distorted) horizontally or vertically.
    • Labels must NOT overlap or be concealed (cut off) by the image, or cropped (cut off) by the edge of the page.
  • Label styles and language
    • Labels must be prepared according to our in-house style, must be phrased in accordance to the manuscript, and must be free of spelling and other language errors.
    • First letter of each phrase, NOT each word, must be capitalized (e.g., 'Overall survival (months)' not 'Overall Survival (Months)' and not 'overall survival (months)'.
    • There must always be a zero (0) placed before decimal points: 0.5 NOT .5.
    • Decimal points must use a fullstop/period (.) NOT a comma (,).
    • A space must be inserted before measurements: 132 bp NOT 132bp, 5 mm NOT 5mm, 1 h NOT 1h.
    • Measurements must be written as:
  • second(s): sec
  • minute(s): min
  • hour(s): h
  • day(s): day(s)
  • week(s): week(s)
  • month(s): month(s)
  • micro: μ, μ (available in Times and Helvetica) NOT u
  • liter(s): l NOT L
  • kiloDalton: kDa, Da, NOT kD
    • Greek letters must be inserted using the correct Greek symbol (using Times, Helvetica or Symbol font), NOT written in full, i.e., alpha: α; beta: β, ß, (available in Times and Helvetica); and gamma: γ, etc.
  • Figures may be divided into separate sections. Each section may be saved as a separate file (clearly indicated in file name) or included together in one file (with parts clearly labeled).
  • Separate parts of a figure should be labeled using just A, B, C, NOT 1A, 1B, 1C.
  • Figure sections may be divided and subdivided as follows:
    • A, B, C
    • A a,b,c; B a,b,c; C a,b,c
    • A a-1, a-2, b-1, b-2; B, a-1, a-2, b-1, b-2
  • The number of the figure must NOT be included in the image, especially if placed overlapping part of the image (instead, the file itself should be named using the figure number).
  • A, B, Cs must be placed to the top left of each section of the figure, NOT overlapping the image.

3.3.9 Figure appearance

  • Figure backgrounds must be white. Grey backgrounds (or backgrounds of any other color) are NOT acceptable.
  • White space surrounding figures should be cropped so that the image is as close to the edges of the page as possible.
  • Figures and specific sections of figures should NOT be surrounded by borders (frames).
  • Figures should NOT be stretched out of proportion (distorted) horizontally or vertically.
  • Yellow must NOT be used for lines in diagrams. Any darker color may be used instead.
  • Line art should be dark and thick enough to be clearly visible, even at small sizes.
  • Charts, graphs and diagrams should NOT use more than 5 shades of gray. Patterns are acceptable.
  • In charts, graphs and diagrams, unnecessary colors should be avoided (e.g., color that does not impart any additional information and is used for slight emphasis only, or color that can be replaced by shades of gray, patterns or shapes).

3.3.10 Copyright

  • If a figure or table has been published previously (even if you were the author of the manuscript), copyright permission for re-use of the figure or table will often be required.
  • Acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material where necessary.
  • As the author of your manuscript, you are responsible for obtaining permissions to use material owned by others.

3.4 Figure legends

  • Figure legends should be listed one after the other, as part of the text document and separate from the figure files.
  • Figure legends must begin with a brief title for the whole figure and continue with a short description of each panel and the symbols used.
  • Legends should not contain any details of the methods
  • All error bars must be defined in the figure legend

3.5 Tables

  • Each table should be submitted on a separate page
  • Typed using double-spacing
  • Numbered with Roman numerals
  • Include a short title
  • Symbols and abbreviations are defined immediately below the table

3.6 Nomenclature and abbreviations

  • Nomenclature should follow that given in Chemical Abstracts.
  • Standard abbreviations are preferable.
  • New abbreviations must be defined at first usage.

3.7 References

  • Citation of journal titles follow the standard form of Index Medicus and the references must be numbered consecutively.
  • Do NOT use full stop after initials or abbreviations.
  • In the text, references should be cited by number in soft brackets e.g. (1-3) (1,2).
  • Inclusive page numbers should be given.
  • Complete Author list is preferred, however, if more than 7 Authors, 3 names and et al can be used.
  • Following are examples of order and style, which should be strictly adhered to:
    • Spandidos DA and Wilkie NM: Malignant transformation of early passage rodent cells by a single mutated human oncogene. Nature 310: 469-475, 1984.
    • Spandidos A, Wang X, Wang H and Seed B: PrimerBank: a resource of human and mouse PCR primer pairs for gene expression detection and quantification. Nucleic Acids Res 38: D792-D799, 2010.
    • Gilmour RS, Spandidos DA, Vass JK, et al: Negative regulatory sequence near the mouse beta-maj globin gene associated with a region of potential Z-DNA. EMBO Journal 3: 1263-1272, 1984.
    • Hall A, Morris JDH, Price B, Lloyd A, Hancock JF, Gardener S, Houslay MD, Wakelam MJO and Marshall CJ: The function of the mammalian Ras proteins. In: Ras oncogenes. Spandidos DA (ed.) Plenum Publ. Corp., New York, pp99-104, 1989.
  • Personal communications should be avoided.
  • Manuscripts in preparation or submitted, but not yet accepted, and abstracts, may be cited in the text, but should NOT be included in the list of references.
  • EndNote and Reference Manager output styles for our journals are available. To download the Output Style files, please click on the following LINK

3.8 Conflicts of interest and informed consent

  • Authors must declare whether they have any conflicts of interest
  • Manuscripts must include a statement that informed consent, if necessary, was obtained.

3.9 Use of humans and experimental animals

  • Research carried out on humans must follow international and national regulations.
  • When experimental animals are used, research must follow internationally recognised guidelines on animal welfare, as well as local and national regulations.
  • A statement must be included in the materials and methods section of the manuscript identifying the institutional and/or licensing committee that has approved the experiments undertaken.

4. Proofs

  • Authors must check their manuscripts carefully before submission as any errors will be faithfully transferred into the typeset version.

5. Reprints

  • A reprint order form will accompany notification of acceptance of a manuscript and should be completed and returned immediately. For further information, please email

6. Article Charges

After final acceptance of manuscripts, authors can choose between one of the two following options to cover for publications costs.

Option 1: The publication charge is calculated based on the number of pages and color figures of the final accepted manuscript. All Spandidos Publications journals have the same fees for option 1.

 EURGBPUSD
Basic charge (total amount for up to 5 pages) €250 £210 $325
Each additional page €110 £90 $160
Reproduction in color, per page €390 £310 $520

Color figures should only be submitted if intended for publication. Fees for color reproduction are calculated based on the figures at the time of manuscript acceptance. Figures may not be changed to black and white once a manuscript has been accepted.

Articles become freely available 12 months after their publication online.

The charge for immediate open access following publication is EUR €450 | GBP £360 | USD $675. This fee is only available for International Journal of Oncology and Oncology Reports, authors publishing in other journals that wish to purchase open access must use option 2.

Option 2: A fixed charge is applied irrespective of the total number of pages or color figures. In addition, the articles are made immediately available as open access and appear online at PubMed, PubMed Central and Europe PMC. This option complies with a number of funding bodies (see open access section online).

 EURGBPUSD
International Journal of Molecular Medicine €1,390 £1,200 $1,860
Molecular Medicine Reports €1,090 £940 $1,450
Oncology Letters €890 £770 $1,190
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine €890 £770 $1,190
Molecular and Clinical Oncology €890 £770 $1,190
Biomedical Reports €890 £770 $1,190

If your institute has a Gold Membership subscription with Spandidos Publications, then your article may be published free of charge.

7. Open Access

  • "Open access" articles published online can be freely accessed at the journal's website by all users, the articles are made immediately available as open access and appear online at PubMed, PubMed Central and Europe PMC.
  • Articles may be licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License or a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  • Spandidos Publications’ publishing policies enable authors to comply fully with the public access requirements of the major worldwide funding agencies (visit www.sherpa.ac.uk for more information). Authors must take the necessary actions to obtain this compliance, including self-archiving, utilization of Spandidos Publications manuscript deposition service and selection of open access publication under the correct license.
  • Spandidos Publications makes articles freely available 12 month after the publication.
  • Under option 1, the charge for immediate open access following publication of articles in International Journal of Oncology and Oncology Reports is EUR 450 | GBP 360 | USD 675.
  • Authors wishing to purchase immediate open access for International Journal of Molecular Medicine, Molecular Medicine Reports, Oncology Letters, Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, Molecular and Clinical Oncology and Biomedical Reports must select option 2.

8. Compliance with funding agencies

All manuscripts that are agency-funded (e.g. NIH, HHMI, Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Trust, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC),etc.) and paid for under the Open Access Option will be deposited automatically by the publisher and become publicly available in PubMed Central and Europe PMC. Alternatively, agency-funded articles without Open Access purchase will be deposited and made publicly available in PubMed Central and Europe PMC 6-12 months following publication, depending on the public access policy of the agency.

9. Funding body policies and agreements

    • Spandidos Publications has obtained agreements and constructed policies to enable authors to comply with manuscript archiving requirements of the following funding bodies specified in conditions of researcher grant awards.
    • This enables authors to follow their funding body's policies on archiving without breaching their publishing agreements with Spandidos Publications.
      • Arthritis Research Campaign (UK)
      • Austrian Science Fund (FWF)
      • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)
      • British Heart Foundation (UK)
      • Cancer Research (UK)
      • Chief Scientist Office
      • Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)
      • Department of Health (UK)
      • Dunhill Medical Trust
      • Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)
      • Howard Hughes Medical Institute (US)
      • Medical Research Council (UK)
      • National Institutes of Health (US)
      • National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)
      • Research Councils (UK)
      • Telethon (Italy)
      • Wellcome Trust (UK)

10. Author self-archiving

Authors are encouraged to submit the final publisher’s version PDF of their manuscript to their institution’s repository 6 months following publication, as well as to their funding body’s archive. A link to the published version on the Spandidos Publications website must be included with full citation details and acknowledgement of the journal as the original source. Authors that have purchased open access can add the final publisher's PDF to their institutional repository and funding body's archive immediately.

11. English Language Editing, Manuscript Formatting and Figure Preparation

If English is not your first language, you may decide to have your manuscript proofread or edited by an English speaker, prior to submission. This may be a colleague or a professional service. Clear and concise language enables editors and reviewers to concentrate on the scientific content of your manuscript. This facilitates the peer review process and ensures that your article will not be rejected based on English-language alone. Spandidos Publications UK Ltd offers a number of Manuscript Services including an English Language Editing service, through which the use of English in your manuscript may be checked and refined. The editors of this service will focus on the spelling, grammar, clarity and style of your manuscript.

For more information on this and other services, please access: www.spandidos-publications.com/languageediting

For more information on this and other services, please email: languageediting@spandidos-publications.com

Please be aware that an author's use of this or any other service in no way guarantees that his or her submission will be accepted by a Spandidos journal or any other. Any arrangement an author enters into will be exclusively between the author and their chosen company. Using an editing service is neither a requirement for nor a guarantee of acceptance for publication. For further details, please refer to our disclaimer on our affiliated website.

1. Submission methods

Manuscript must be submitted by one method only.

1.1 Online Submission:

Submissions may be uploaded via our online submission system. Click here to access the system, log in or create an account and follow the onscreen directions.

2. Cover letter

Summarize briefly the main importance of the submitted work.

3. Format of articles and reviews

3.1 General style

  • Title of the study must be included
  • Sub-titles and general headlines should be presented in lower case letters (not capitals)
  • Indicate affiliations of the authors by number (not symbols)
  • Indicate equal contribution by asterisk
  • Abstract should be continuous (without reference numbers, or headlines)

3.2 Manuscripts

Manuscripts reporting experimental results must be divided into the following sections:

  • First page should include the title of the presented work, full names and postal addresses of all authors, name and the e-mail address of the author to whom correspondence is to be sent, key words and an abbreviated running title (maximum 100 characters), including the first author's name
  • Abstract of approximately 150-300 words.
  • Introduction
  • Materials and methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Pages should be numbered consecutively. Footnotes should not be used

For Review articles:

  • May include different sections and headlines according to the subject matter and the Author's opinion
  • Abstract is mandatory.
  • Main headlines of the review should be summarized as a contents section immediately following the Abstract.

For the Materials and methods section:

  • The Materials and methods section should include sufficient technical information to allow the experiments to be repeated. This implies that a full description of all the experiments described in Results and presented in the Figures/Tables is expected in this section. For each experiment, all steps (e.g., DNA and protein extraction, quantification, cloning, PCR and microscopy) need to be mentioned, along with instruments the analyses were performed on, reagents and methods (e.g., BCA method for protein quantification, ΔΔCq method for qPCR) and relevant citations.
  • For steps performed with commercialized kits, provide the full name of the kit, along with the full name and location (city, state if USA/Canada, and country) of the supplier, and state whether the protocol of the manufacturer was followed as such. Additionally, clarify whether any potential modifications were made to this protocol. For PCR reactions, provide name of the used kit, the 5’-3’ sequence of the primers, final concentration of all reagents in the reaction, and cycling conditions. Carefully revise your text to ensure that the type of PCR, quantitative or semi-quantitative, is clearly explained. If the PCR is performed using a cDNA synthesized from RNA samples, make sure that all steps are described, and refer to the method as ‘RT-PCR’ or, if quantitative, as RT-qPCR. Manufacturers/suppliers/software developers need to be provided for all used reagents (including chemicals), instruments (e.g. thermal cyclers, microscopes) and software, ideally accompanied by the corresponding kit number/model/version. For antibodies, additional information required includes the type (monoclonal/polyclonal), species in which they were raised and targeted species (e.g., mouse anti-human) and dilution. For centrifugation steps, provide centrifugal force units in x g rather than revolutions per minute (rpm).
  • All the above equally applies to bioinformatic analyses: the software used along with the relevant citation is needed, unless the software is not published, in which case a website link can be provided. For microarray/RNA sequences, data downloaded from GEO or other databases, this needs to be clarified in the text, along with the corresponding accession number of the dataset. The use of software should be described with regards to the parameters (default, study-specific) and the applied thresholds; please explicitly name the parameters, e.g. ‘association value’ or ‘false-positive rate’. For all software using data from public databases for a search, provide the database (along with date of access for databases constantly updated), and species (e.g., human). If Figures/Tables contain data from a public database (e.g., Gene Ontology/KEGG), explicitly cite the source in the legend/title/footnote. For publicly available sequences, provide the accession number.
  • The source of material used for all experiments should be clearly identified: tissues (where collected from)/bacterial strains or cells (name and supplier). For studies on humans, a minimum of information is required: number of subjects, age range, gender ratio, health status, matching between controls and disease patients with regards to the above parameters. Please note that ‘normal’ should be avoided for controls; rather, the precise health status needs to be described, e.g., ‘healthy’, or ‘individuals with no recorded tumor complication’. For manuscripts presenting studies on humans and animals see 3.9 below.
  • Please note that Figure legends are not expected to contain information already described in Materials and methods, except for image-specific specifications, for example, magnification for microscopy, or type of microscope, e.g., fluorescence microscope. Legends should provide information concerning what is shown in the figure(s)/figure parts. The x- and y-axes of the graphs must be clearly explained in the legends, and when p-values are provided, the comparison these p-values refer to must be clearly stated.

3.3 Figures

3.3.1 File format

  • Acceptable
    • TIFF
    • JPEG (saved at the highest quality)
    • EPS files or full page (one image filling a whole standard-sized page) PSD files for vector figures (charts/graphs) only
  • Unacceptable
    • Images imported or copy pasted into Word or PowerPoint
    • BMP, GIF, PCT, PNG or low quality JPEG files

3.3.2 Color mode

  • Acceptable
    • Color figures: CMYK mode
    • Black and white figures: grayscale mode
    • Color or grayscale figures submitted in RGB mode
  • Unacceptable
    • sRGB or webRGB color modes
  • PLEASE NOTE
    • Color figures are welcome but must be submitted only if reproduction in color is intended (a charge will apply).
    • There is a charge of Euro 390 per published color page.
    • Changing color figures to black and white following evaluation is not possible

3.3.3 Image size

    • Image size is measured in centimeters or inches
    • Saved at the size (width) at which they will be printed
      • 8.00 cm (3.15 in) wide for a single column
      • 17.00 cm (6.70 in) for a double column
      • Maximum height 20.00 cm (7.87 in)

      • Empty white space surrounding a figure should NOT be included when calculating image size. Images should therefore be cropped (cut) as close to the outside edges of the figure as possible.

      • If a figure is too wide or contains too much information to be fit within 17 cm while keeping details clearly visible, figures must be divided into several clearly labeled separate parts

3.3.4 Image resolution

      • Images must be clear, high contrast and of the size they are to appear in the journal
      • Saved at a resolution of AT LEAST 300 dpi/inch, at the size at which they will be printed or larger (>8 or 17 cm wide) with NO white space around the edges of the figure.
      • Insufficient image size and/or resolution (dpi) results in poor quality (blurred) printed figures.
      • Low-resolution figures (

3.3.5 Exporting/capturing/saving figures

Figures may be obtained by scanning, digital photography, or exporting using scientific software or a program such as PowerPoint.

  • Scanning
    • Must be scanned using a high quality scanner at a resolution of 300 dpi/inch prior to scanning
    • Print on high quality photographic paper.
  • Digital photographs
    • Captured using 'fine' or 'extra fine' settings to ensure that they are of sufficient size/resolution
    • Exporting
      • When exporting using scientific software, select settings to ensure the highest possible final size and resolution.
      • When exporting from PowerPoint, choosing 'Save as TIFF' from the Save as dialogue box will NOT result in an image of sufficiently high resolution (figures will instead be saved at 92 dpi/inch). It is necessary to FIRST save the image as a PDF (from the Print dialogue box), THEN to open the PDF with image editing software. This allows for the dpi to be specified when the PDF is first opened. The file may be then saved as a TIFF using the image editing software
      • Also possible to save Word or Excel files as PDFs to export them in a similar fashion
      • If figures are NOT initially scanned, photographed or exported at a sufficiently high size/resolution, artificially increasing the resolution of a low-quality figure (i.e. , keeping the figure size the same while raising the dpi) using image editing software will NOT improve its quality

3.3.6 File size

  • Figures should have a file size of less than 10 MB.
  • To reduce the file size of images:
    • If images are the exact width and height required for publication (not smaller), make sure the figures are saved at no more than 300 dpi/inch.
    • Layers in the image must be flattened.
    • Saving black and white figures as grayscale will considerably reduce file size.
    • Figures saved as high quality JPEGs will have a slightly smaller file size than TIFFs.
    • If saved according to our guidelines, it is rare for a file to exceed 10 MB. However, some internet service providers limit the size at which files may be sent to as little as 2 or 5 MB. In such cases, files may be compressed before sending using a compression or stuffing utility, such as WinZip or StuffIt, or each figure may be sent attached to a separate e-mail.

3.3.7 Figure labels

  • Font size
    • Labels must be in correct proportion to the image, sharp, and clearly legible.
    • Font size must be 8-10 point when figures are saved at the correct size, (8 or 17 cm at 300 dpi/inch).
    • If the image is saved at a size larger than that needed for printing, the font size of labels must also be larger to maintain the correct proportions.
    • If labels cannot fit on an 8-cm-wide page unless the font size is smaller than 8 points, the figure must be prepared as a double column figure (14-17 cm wide). If labels cannot fit on the 17-cm-wide page unless the font size is smaller than 8 points, the figure must be split into several parts.
  • Font style and appearance
    • Labels must be saved using standard fonts, and should be evenly spaced, clear and free of distortion: Times and/or Helvetica font.
    • Labels should be sharp and clearly legible (including exponential numbers around figure axes) NOT blurry, fuzzy, faded or broken. Faint labels (e.g., in light gray color) should NOT be used.
    • There must be strong contrast between labels and their background (e.g., labels placed over shaded bar graphs should be in a color that stands out against the shading, NOT blend in with it). Whenever possible, labels should be placed in black font on a white background.
    • Letters of labels must NOT be overlapping, condensed, expanded, have unnecessary gaps between them or be otherwise irregularly spaced, and must NOT be stretched (distorted) horizontally or vertically.
    • Labels must NOT overlap or be concealed (cut off) by the image, or cropped (cut off) by the edge of the page.
  • Label styles and language
    • Labels must be prepared according to our in-house style, must be phrased in accordance to the manuscript, and must be free of spelling and other language errors.
    • First letter of each phrase, NOT each word, must be capitalized (e.g., 'Overall survival (months)' not 'Overall Survival (Months)' and not 'overall survival (months)'.
    • There must always be a zero (0) placed before decimal points: 0.5 NOT .5.
    • Decimal points must use a fullstop/period (.) NOT a comma (,).
    • A space must be inserted before measurements: 132 bp NOT 132bp, 5 mm NOT 5mm, 1 h NOT 1h.
    • Measurements must be written as:
  • second(s): sec
  • minute(s): min
  • hour(s): h
  • day(s): day(s)
  • week(s): week(s)
  • month(s): month(s)
  • micro: μ, μ (available in Times and Helvetica) NOT u
  • liter(s): l NOT L
  • kiloDalton: kDa, Da, NOT kD
    • Greek letters must be inserted using the correct Greek symbol (using Times, Helvetica or Symbol font), NOT written in full, i.e., alpha: α; beta: β, ß, (available in Times and Helvetica); and gamma: γ, etc.
  • Figures may be divided into separate sections. Each section may be saved as a separate file (clearly indicated in file name) or included together in one file (with parts clearly labeled).
  • Separate parts of a figure should be labeled using just A, B, C, NOT 1A, 1B, 1C.
  • Figure sections may be divided and subdivided as follows:
    • A, B, C
    • A a,b,c; B a,b,c; C a,b,c
    • A a-1, a-2, b-1, b-2; B, a-1, a-2, b-1, b-2
  • The number of the figure must NOT be included in the image, especially if placed overlapping part of the image (instead, the file itself should be named using the figure number).
  • A, B, Cs must be placed to the top left of each section of the figure, NOT overlapping the image.

3.3.9 Figure appearance

  • Figure backgrounds must be white. Grey backgrounds (or backgrounds of any other color) are NOT acceptable.
  • White space surrounding figures should be cropped so that the image is as close to the edges of the page as possible.
  • Figures and specific sections of figures should NOT be surrounded by borders (frames).
  • Figures should NOT be stretched out of proportion (distorted) horizontally or vertically.
  • Yellow must NOT be used for lines in diagrams. Any darker color may be used instead.
  • Line art should be dark and thick enough to be clearly visible, even at small sizes.
  • Charts, graphs and diagrams should NOT use more than 5 shades of gray. Patterns are acceptable.
  • In charts, graphs and diagrams, unnecessary colors should be avoided (e.g., color that does not impart any additional information and is used for slight emphasis only, or color that can be replaced by shades of gray, patterns or shapes).

3.3.10 Copyright

  • If a figure or table has been published previously (even if you were the author of the manuscript), copyright permission for re-use of the figure or table will often be required.
  • Acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material where necessary.
  • As the author of your manuscript, you are responsible for obtaining permissions to use material owned by others.

3.4 Figure legends

  • Figure legends should be listed one after the other, as part of the text document and separate from the figure files.
  • Figure legends must begin with a brief title for the whole figure and continue with a short description of each panel and the symbols used.
  • Legends should not contain any details of the methods
  • All error bars must be defined in the figure legend

3.5 Tables

  • Each table should be submitted on a separate page
  • Typed using double-spacing
  • Numbered with Roman numerals
  • Include a short title
  • Symbols and abbreviations are defined immediately below the table

3.6 Nomenclature and abbreviations

  • Nomenclature should follow that given in Chemical Abstracts.
  • Standard abbreviations are preferable.
  • New abbreviations must be defined at first usage.

3.7 References

  • Citation of journal titles follow the standard form of Index Medicus and the references must be numbered consecutively.
  • Do NOT use full stop after initials or abbreviations.
  • In the text, references should be cited by number in soft brackets e.g. (1-3) (1,2).
  • Inclusive page numbers should be given.
  • Complete Author list is preferred, however, if more than 7 Authors, 3 names and et al can be used.
  • Following are examples of order and style, which should be strictly adhered to:
    • Spandidos DA and Wilkie NM: Malignant transformation of early passage rodent cells by a single mutated human oncogene. Nature 310: 469-475, 1984.
    • Spandidos A, Wang X, Wang H and Seed B: PrimerBank: a resource of human and mouse PCR primer pairs for gene expression detection and quantification. Nucleic Acids Res 38: D792-D799, 2010.
    • Gilmour RS, Spandidos DA, Vass JK, et al: Negative regulatory sequence near the mouse beta-maj globin gene associated with a region of potential Z-DNA. EMBO Journal 3: 1263-1272, 1984.
    • Hall A, Morris JDH, Price B, Lloyd A, Hancock JF, Gardener S, Houslay MD, Wakelam MJO and Marshall CJ: The function of the mammalian Ras proteins. In: Ras oncogenes. Spandidos DA (ed.) Plenum Publ. Corp., New York, pp99-104, 1989.
  • Personal communications should be avoided.
  • Manuscripts in preparation or submitted, but not yet accepted, and abstracts, may be cited in the text, but should NOT be included in the list of references.
  • EndNote and Reference Manager output styles for our journals are available. To download the Output Style files, please click on the following LINK

3.8 Conflicts of interest and informed consent

  • Authors must declare whether they have any conflicts of interest
  • Manuscripts must include a statement that informed consent, if necessary, was obtained.

3.9 Use of humans and experimental animals

  • Research carried out on humans must follow international and national regulations.
  • When experimental animals are used, research must follow internationally recognised guidelines on animal welfare, as well as local and national regulations.
  • A statement must be included in the materials and methods section of the manuscri identifying the institutional and/or licensing committee that has approved the experiments undertaken.

4. Proofs

  • Authors must check their manuscripts carefully before submission as any errors will be faithfully transferred into the typeset version.

5. Reprints

  • A reprint order form will accompany notification of acceptance of a manuscript and should be completed and returned immediately. For further information, please email

6. Article Charges

After final acceptance of manuscripts, authors can choose between one of the two following options to cover for publications costs.

Option 1: The publication charge is calculated based on the number of pages and color figures of the final accepted manuscript. All Spandidos Publications journals have the same fees for option 1.

 EURGBPUSD
Basic charge (total amount for up to 5 pages) €250 £210 $325
Each additional page €110 £90 $160
Reproduction in color, per page €390 £310 $520

Color figures should only be submitted if intended for publication. Fees for color reproduction are calculated based on the figures at the time of manuscript acceptance. Figures may not be changed to black and white once a manuscript has been accepted.

Articles become freely available 12 months after their publication online.

The charge for immediate open access following publication is EUR €450 | GBP £360 | USD $675. This fee is only available for International Journal of Oncology and Oncology Reports, authors publishing in other journals that wish to purchase open access must use option 2.

Option 2: A fixed charge is applied irrespective of the total number of pages or color figures. In addition, the articles are made immediately available as open access and appear online at PubMed, PubMed Central and Europe PMC. This option complies with a number of funding bodies (see open access section online).

 EURGBPUSD
International Journal of Molecular Medicine €1,390 £1,200 $1,860
Molecular Medicine Reports €1,090 £940 $1,450
Oncology Letters €890 £770 $1,190
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine €890 £770 $1,190
Molecular and Clinical Oncology €890 £770 $1,190
Biomedical Reports €890 £770 $1,190

If your institute has a Gold Membership subscription with Spandidos Publications, then your article may be published free of charge.

7. Open Access

  • "Open access" articles published online can be freely accessed at the journal's website by all users, the articles are made immediately available as open access and appear online at PubMed, PubMed Central and Europe PMC.
  • Articles may be licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License or a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  • Spandidos Publications’ publishing policies enable authors to comply fully with the public access requirements of the major worldwide funding agencies (visit www.sherpa.ac.uk for more information). Authors must take the necessary actions to obtain this compliance, including self-archiving, utilization of Spandidos Publications manuscript deposition service and selection of open access publication under the correct license.
  • Spandidos Publications Ltd. makes articles freely available 12 month after the publication
  • Under option 1, the charge for immediate open access following publication of articles in International Journal of Oncology and Oncology Reports is EUR 450 | GBP 360 | USD 675.
  • Authors wishing to purchase immediate open access for International Journal of Molecular Medicine, Molecular Medicine Reports, Oncology Letters, Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, Molecular and Clinical Oncology and Biomedical Reports must select option 2.

8. Compliance with funding agencies

All manuscripts that are agency-funded (e.g. NIH, HHMI, Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Trust, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), etc.) and paid for under the Open Access Option will be deposited automatically by the publisher and become publicly available in PubMed Central and Europe PMC. Alternatively, agency-funded articles without Open Access purchase will be deposited and made publicly available in PubMed Central and Europe PMC 6-12 months following publication, depending on the public access policy of the agency.

9. Funding body policies and agreements

  • Spandidos Publications has obtained agreements and constructed policies to enable authors to comply with manuscript archiving requirements of the following funding bodies specified in conditions of researcher grant awards.
  • This enables authors to follow their funding body's policies on archiving without breaching their publishing agreements with Spandidos Publications.
    • Arthritis Research Campaign (UK)
    • Austrian Science Fund (FWF)
    • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)
    • British Heart Foundation (UK)
    • Cancer Research (UK)
    • Chief Scientist Office
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)
    • Department of Health (UK)
    • Dunhill Medical Trust
    • Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute (US)
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
    • National Institutes of Health (US)
    • National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)
    • Research Councils (UK)
    • Telethon (Italy)
    • Wellcome Trust (UK)

10. Author self-archiving

Authors are encouraged to submit the final publisher’s version PDF of their manuscript to their institution’s repository 6 months following publication, as well as to their funding body’s archive. A link to the published version on the Spandidos Publications website must be included with full citation details and acknowledgement of the journal as the original source. Authors that have purchased open access can add the final publisher's PDF to their institutional repository and funding body's archive immediately.

11. English Language Editing, Manuscript Formatting and Figure Preparation

If English is not your first language, you may decide to have your manuscript proofread or edited by an English speaker, prior to submission. This may be a colleague or a professional service. Clear and concise language enables editors and reviewers to concentrate on the scientific content of your manuscript. This facilitates the peer review process and ensures that your article will not be rejected based on English-language alone. Spandidos Publications UK Ltd offers a number of Manuscript Services including an English Language Editing service, through which the use of English in your manuscript may be checked and refined. The editors of this service will focus on the spelling, grammar, clarity and style of your manuscript.

For more information on this and other services, please access: www.spandidos-publications.com/languageediting

For more information on this and other services, please email: languageediting@spandidos-publications.com

Please be aware that an author's use of this or any other service in no way guarantees that his or her submission will be accepted by a Spandidos journal or any other. Any arrangement an author enters into will be exclusively between the author and their chosen company. Using an editing service is neither a requirement for nor a guarantee of acceptance for publication. For further details, please refer to our disclaimer on our affiliated website.