Anti-metastatic effect of rhodomyrtone from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa on human skin cancer cells
- Malatee Tayeh
- Sirinun Nilwarangoon
- Wilawan Mahabusarakum
- Ramida Watanapokasin
Published online on: January 9, 2017
This study focused on the inhibitory effect of rhodomyrtone, a bioactive compound isolated from the leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., on cancer metastasis in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and on the verification of the underlying related molecular mechanisms of this event. We demonstrated that rhodomyrtone at the subcytotoxic concentration (0.5 and 1.5 µg/ml) exhibited pronounced inhibition of cancer metastasis by reducing cell migration, cell adhesive ability and cell invasion of A431 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Data demonstrated that rhodomyrtone could inhibit the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), c-Raf, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK involved in the downregulation the enzyme activities and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. Moreover, we found that rhodomyrtone increased the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, which are inhibitors of MMP-9 and MMP-2, respectively. Rhodomyrtone also inhibited the expression of NF-κB and phosphorylation of NF-κB in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that rhodomyrtone inhibited A431 cell metastasis by reducing MMP-2/9 activities and expression through inhibiting ERK1/2, p38 and FAK/Akt signaling pathways via NF-κB activities. This finding suggested that rhodomyrtone may be a novel antimetastasis agent for treatment of skin cancer cells.