Calprotectin in serum and zonulin in serum and feces are elevated after introduction of a diet with lower carbohydrate content and higher fiber, fat and protein contents
- Bodil Ohlsson
- Bodil Roth
- Ewa Larsson
- Peter Höglund
Published online on: Wednesday, February 22, 2017
Calprotectin is a marker of inflammation and zonulin is a marker of intestinal permeability. Diets with lower carbohydrate content and higher contents of fat, fiber and protein, e.g., Okinawan‑based diet, are considered to reduce inflammation and intestinal permeability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate calprotectin and zonulin levels in serum and feces after intervention with an Okinawan‑based Nordic diet. Thirty patients (17 women) with type 2 diabetes, mean age 57.5±8.2 years, BMI 29.9±4.1 kg/m2, were served the diet during 12 weeks, and were followed for another 16 weeks. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were registered. Fasting levels of calprotectin and zonulin in serum and feces, and hormones in plasma, were measured by Luminex or ELISA before study start and after 12 and 28 weeks. Calprotectin in serum tended to be increased (P=0.074) after 12 weeks. Zonulin in serum and feces were elevated after 12 weeks (P=0.019 vs. P<0.001), and remained elevated in serum after 28 weeks (P=0.014). In contrast to baseline, there was a correlation between calprotectin and zonulin in serum and feces after dietary intervention (P=0.025 vs. P=0.079). Energy percentage of protein in breakfast correlated with serum calprotectin (P=0.008) and tended to correlate with serum zonulin (P=0.059). Calprotectin in serum tended to be elevated, and zonulin in serum and feces are elevated after introduction of an Okinawan‑based Nordic diet. These biomarkers correlate with energy percentage of protein.