Identification of genes associated with tongue cancer in patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use
- Yin Zhao
- Dongna Fu
- Chengbi Xu
- Jingpu Yang
- Zonggui Wang
Published online on: December 14, 2016
Copyright: © Zhao et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.
The present study aimed to identify genes associated with tongue cancer in patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use. Microarray dataset GSE42023, including 10 tissue samples of tongue cancer from patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use (habit group) and 11 tissue samples of non‑habit‑associated tongue cancer (non‑habit group), were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially‑expressed genes (DEGs) between the habit and non‑habit groups were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray Data software package. The enrichment functions and pathways of these genes were subsequently predicted using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. Transcription factors (TFs) and tumor‑associated genes (TAGs) were selected from the DEGs using the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements database and the TAG database, respectively. Protein‑protein interaction (PPI) networks for DEGs were constructed using Cytoscape. In addition, functional module analysis was performed using BioNet. This analysis identified 642 DEGs between the habit and non‑habit groups, including 200 upregulated and 442 downregulated genes. The majority of upregulated DEGs were functionally enriched in the regulation of apoptosis and the calcium signaling pathway. The majority of downregulated DEGs were functionally enriched in fat cell differentiation and the adipocytokine signaling pathway. In addition, 31 TFs and 42 TAGs were identified from the DEGs. Furthermore, this analysis demonstrated that certain DEGs, including AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), E1A binding protein p300 (EP300), erb‑b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) and epiregulin (EREG), had high connectivity degrees in the PPI networks and/or functional modules. Overall, DEGs in a functional module, such as AKT1, EP300, ERBB2 and EREG, may serve important roles in the development of tongue cancer in patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use. These DEGs are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of tongue cancer in these groups.